The testing series is comprised of the following tests: 

Heart Rate Variability, Pulse Wave Velocity and Sudomotor Function

Heart Rate Variability (HRV)

Measures the minute changes in time between heartbeats, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the only known predictor for sudden cardiac death, as first discovered by the Framingham Study.

Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV)

Measures the speed at which the heartbeat's wave of pressure passes through the arteries is the gold-standard non-invasive test of arterial elasticity.  PWV is also an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events.

Sudomotor Function

The test for sudomotor function, or the "movement of sweat", is the Sympathetic Skin Response, or SSR. It is a simple, non-invasive test that assesses the skin's sympathetic activity by measuring the change in electrical potential of the skin due to a small amount of sweat production.


The sympathetic nervous system mediates appropriate sweat production, and this system is often malfunctioning in distal neuropathies, such as those frequently seen in diabetes, as well as in centrally mediated neuropathies of many kinds.

Patients are qualified, based on medical necessity guidelines, for each test individually. Many adult patients have existing risk factors, lifestyle choices or personal and family history to be eligible for all three of these tests, given overlapping risk factors and diagnoses.

The combined test results are evaluated using a historical database of approximately 200,000 de-identified prior test results. This comparative analysis offers additional insight into related conditions and possibly other findings such as connected complications of cardiovascular and nervous system dysfunction. Statistically speaking, for every 100-150 tests done, one life-saving intervention will result.

An entry-level staff person without prior experience can be trained to administer the tests with VS Diagnostics' comprehensive in-person training. VSD educators will travel to your location and determine how best the testing may be integrated into to your existing office flow. The combined tests together require between 20-25 minutes to complete.


While the tests are helping save patient lives and quality of life, insurance providers are saving the significant costs of emergency medical treatment as well as those related to hospital, rehabilitation or long-term care.

Patients who qualify may be re-tested yearly and/or when significant changes are made in their medical treatment plans or when changes occur in their health status, such as gaining or losing significant weight, quitting smoking, being diagnosed with diabetes, etc.

Included in the program cost is the equipment, and training (onsite and remote), ongoing technical support, comprehensive billing training plus 90 days of expert billing consultation, as well as customized versions of all required patient documentation, forms and insurance paperwork templates in accordance with local coverage determination guidelines.

The program also includes physicians' interpretation of results, along with considerations for care options, referrals, and potential next steps. A patient-focused printout is also created and includes layperson's explanations of test results as well as suggestions for healthy lifestyle modifications and other strategies that could improve patients' scores.

Having these repeatable tests, which may be done at least annually, helps patients and physicians track and monitor risk factors and disease progression.

The common goal is always to improve the patient's health, reduce associated healthcare costs and better test scores through healthy lifestyle modifications, effective medications, patient compliance, and other treatment and follow/up recommendations.

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